Damage is any event that reduces the health of a player or entity. Damage can be caused by weapons, fire, explosions, falling, bleeding, certain taunts, or by environmental sources such as trains, water, saw blades, the Horseless Headless Horsemann, MONOCULUS, Merasmus, and the Underworld.
Weapon damage is calculated in the following manner:
Critical hits are calculated as:
Mini-crits are calculated as:
The base damage of a weapon is a constant number that is fixed to a particular weapon. Damage does not depend on where on the target the attack hits, with the exception of weapons that critical hit on certain regions of the target.
Distance and randomness modifier
The distance modifier is a number between 1.5 and 0.5 that sinusoidally decreases as the distance between the attacker and the target increases. The trough of the wave is at 1024 units, and all distances beyond 1024 are treated as 1024 for the purposes of damage calculation. In this formula, there is a random variation in the distance of ±102.4 units (shown in the graph around 512 units, as an example). This means that you may be treated as being up to 102.4 closer or farther than you actually are, for purposes of the formula. This is the 15% variation many players have heard of; it is not simply a 85–115% multiplier on the final damage.
The distance modifier is altered for Rocket Launchers, Stickybomb Launchers (when detonated within 5 seconds), Syringe Guns, the Dragon's Fury, the Righteous Bison, and the Pomson 6000. When the distance used in the formula is less than 512 units, the damage ramp is flattened. As a result, the maximum damage you can have is 125% for Rocket Launchers, and 120% for Stickybomb Launchers, Syringe Guns, the Dragon's Fury, the Righteous Bison, and the Pomson 6000 (shown by the maroon offshoot in the graph). In short, these weapons gain less extra damage from the distance modifier at close range, but still suffer from the same long-range damage penalty as the other weapons.
Conversely, the distance modifier for the Scout's primary weapons (excluding the Shortstop) have an increased damage ramp at close range, maximising at 175% normal damage at point blank, but keep the same default damage ramp at ranges of 512 or greater.
Sticky bombs launched more than 5 seconds ago, Melee weapons, Flare Guns, Grenade Launchers (excluding the Loose Cannon, which is subject to falloff), Sniper Rifles, bows, and Flying Guillotine are all treated as being at 512 units for this formula. Flamethrowers, however, are affected by their own separately calculated modifier based on projectile lifetime.
Weapons that fire projectiles, like the Rocket Launcher and Direct Hit, apply the distance modifier to damage based on the distance between the attacker and the target at the moment the projectile hits a target. This means that the point from which the projectile was fired is irrelevant when considering damage dealt by that projectile; only the final position of the attacker and the target matter.
- The final distance used in the formula cannot go above 1024 or below 0.
- On servers where random variation is disabled (with use of the server cvar "
tf_damage_disablespread"), the effective distance used is 102.4 units less than the farthest possible random distance (that is, after being capped at 1024 units). This means that being farther than 921.6 units away is treated as being 921.6 units away; the normal cap is 1024, and 102.4 less than that is 921.6 units.
- The distance modifier is always 1.0 if the target is a building.
- A level 3 Sentry Gun's rockets are affected by the distance modifier based on the distance from the target to the Sentry Gun's owner.
The splash modifier is a number used for explosive weapons that do not connect directly with the target. Valve has not released the official stats for the splash damage falloff yet. Typically an explosion will deal full damage at minimum range and half damage at the edge of the explosive radius. For consistency, weapons that explode when they hit a player directly will ignore any falloff from splash damage when calculating damage to the struck player (even though the explosion centre might be further than the minimum distance to the player's centre).
Explosive weapons may deal less damage to the user than to enemies, depending on the situation. See the individual weapon pages for more information.
Critical hits and mini-crits have two effects each.
A critical hit adds damage equal to 2 times the base damage, while a mini-crit adds 0.35 times the damage following falloff compensation.
Both critical hits and mini-crits check to see if the final distance is greater than 512: if it is, then any damage lost is offset by an equal increase in damage. The end result is that the weapon does not lose damage due to the distance modifier when the player is more than 512 units away; if the attack were not a crit or mini-crit, damage would continue to decrease out to 1024 units.
The extra damage added on by critical hits and mini-crits - including that from rampup or offsetting falloff - is of the "critical" type instead of the weapon's standard type (e.g. bullet or explosive). This affects the calculation of damage resistances.
Note: A backstab deals 2 times the victim's current health, but, under normal conditions, it also always crits, increasing the damage to 6 times the victim's current health.
While active, the Battalion's Backup protects team members from critical hits and mini-crits, treating them as normal damage instead. The Vaccinator's protective shield blocks 100% of critical damage from attacks of the selected type.
Each weapon has an associated type of damage that it deals. Some weapons can deal more than one damage type at once; for instance, the Cow Mangler 5000's charged shot deals explosive damage as well as fire afterburn damage.
- Bullet damage is typically associated with hitscan weapons, though the damage caused by most projectile impacts is treated as such as well (such as syringes, arrows, and energy beams, excluding the Cow Mangler 5000's beam).
- Explosive damage is usually caused by explosive projectiles. Players killed via explosive damage will often gib.
- Fire damage is caused by both flaming weaponry and the afterburn they induce.
- Bleed damage is applied to players that are bleeding.
- Melee damage is dealt by melee weapons. Melee damage can destroy stickybombs and causes players to scream loudly on kill.
- Critical damage is caused by critical hits and mini-crits, playing distinctive sound effects and producing louder kill screams.
- Fall damage is applied to players that hit the ground after too high and/or too fast a drop, as well as damage dealt by the Mantreads and Thermal Thruster.
- Crush damage results when a player has been sandwiched between two objects (such as between a closing door and the ground). Being killed by crush damage causes the screen to flash red.
- Drowning damage results when a player has been underwater for too long resulting in the screen flashing blue at the same time damaging the player.
Damage vulnerability, resistance, and blocking
A player may take a modified amount of damage due to certain items. These effects stack multiplicatively. "X% damage vulnerability" multiplies that kind of damage by 100% then adding X%, and "Y% damage resistance" multiplies that kind of damage by 100% then subtracting Y%; for example, the Chargin' Targe grants 30% explosive damage resistance, which means all incoming explosive damage is multiplied by 70%.
Because effects are stacked multiplicatively, combinations of effects result in a slightly different value than may be expected; for example, a Soldier with the Pain Train (10% bullet weakness) and an active Battalion's Backup (50% sentry resistance) has a combined resistance of 45% against Sentry bullets - as opposed to the 40% that would result from the effects being simply added together.
Some weapons imbue an effect which increases or decreases the damage received from certain types of weapons. These effects may either be applied as "on wearer" (having the item equipped in the loadout) or "while active" (actively wielding the item).
|List of weapons with damage vulnerability and resistance|
|Secondary||While under the effects, immune to all damage.|
|Bonk! Atomic Punch|
|Melee||+25% explosive damage vulnerability on wearer.|
|+25% fire damage resistance when active|
|Secondary||When used, it provides a defensive buff to nearby teammates that blocks 35% of incoming damage, 50% of Sentry Gun damage, and nullifies Critical hits.|
|Melee||+10% bullet damage vulnerability on wearer.|
|Primary||Invulnerable while 'Mmmph' taunting.|
|Secondary||+50% explosion self-damage vulnerability on wearer|
|Melee||+20% damage vulnerability from all sources when active|
|Secondary|| +50% fire damage resistance on wearer.|
+30% explosive damage resistance on wearer.
| +20% fire damage resistance on wearer.|
+20% explosive damage resistance on wearer.
| +15% fire damage resistance on wearer.|
+15% explosive damage resistance on wearer.
|Melee||+10% bullet damage vulnerability on wearer.|
|+15% damage vulnerability from all sources when active|
|Primary||+20% damage resistance when below 50% health and spun up.|
|20% damage resistance when below 50% health and spun up.|
|Secondary||While under the effects, damage taken increased by 20%.|
|Buffalo Steak Sandvich|
|Melee||+30% damage vulnerability from all sources when active.|
| +40% damage resistance from ranged sources while active.|
+100% damage vulnerability from melee sources while active.
|Fists of Steel|
|Melee||+20% fire damage vulnerability on wearer.|
|Secondary|| While healing, provides healer and heal target with constant 10% resistance to the selected damage type.|
Übercharge provides 75% resistance and full crit resistance to a selected damage type.
|Secondary|| +50% fire damage resistance on wearer.|
Grants full immunity to the effects of afterburn.
|Darwin's Danger Shield|
|Melee||20% damage vulnerability from all sources on wearer when active.|
|Melee||On Hit by Fire: Fireproof for 1 second and Afterburn immunity for 10 seconds.|
|PDA 2||+20% damage resistance when Cloaking.|
|Invis Watch||Enthusiast's Timepiece|
|+20% damage resistance when Cloaking.|
|Cloak and Dagger|
| When being damaged (activating Dead Ringer), blocks 75% of incoming damage and gives afterburn immunity for 3 seconds.|
After Dead Ringer has been activated, 65% damage resistance on wearer which fades to 20% in 3 seconds.
- Fixed the Flamethrower hit detection
- [Undocumented] Melee weapons no longer deal bullet damage.
- [Undocumented] Melee weapons no longer count as bullet weapons when accounting for damage vulnerabilities.